3R Principle is the term used to describe the scientific concept of “reduce, refine and replace” of the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA), in which Bayer is an active member. In the context of animal testing it refers to efforts to develop additional and substitute methods of animal testing to spare animals and minimize their suffering.
African sleeping sickness Infection caused by trypanosome parasites. These are protozoa (single-cell organisms) that are transmitted by tsetse fly bites.
ATM – “Access To Medicine” indicates the performance of pharmaceutical companies in terms of promoting general access to vital drugs and improving knowledge of health issues.
BayPac (Bayer Corporation Political Action Committee) An association of Bayer USA employees through which private donations are collected to support candidates in their election to political offices.
Carbon Disclosure Project is an independent not-for-profit organization that collects climate-relevant information from companies on behalf of analysts and investors. The Carbon Disclosure Leadership Index (CDLI) has been published as part of the Carbon Disclosure Project since 2007. Criteria for the CDLI ranking comprise the level and quality of disclosure of climate-relevant data and reporting on long-term climate strategy, ambitious objectives and specific achievements in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The new Carbon Performance Leadership Index (CPLI) introduced in 2010 evaluates the efforts of around 500 large companies to reduce CO2 emissions.
Carbon footprint is the sum of greenhouse gas emissions, measured in CO2 equivalents, for a specified entity, e.g. a company, the life cycle or partial life cycle of a product, or a service.
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) Microscopically small tube-shaped structures (molecular nanotubes) made of carbon.
Chagas Chagas (South American trypanosomiasis) is an infectious disease caused by parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi). It is transmitted to humans by so-called assassin bugs (Reduviidae).
China Greentech Initiative The China Greentech initiative is an international platform based in China for the identification, development and promotion of green technology solutions. Founded in 2008, it represents more than 100 partners from industry, services and politics. Its focus is on strategic market research in the field of greentech.
COD Chemical Oxygen Demand. Measure of the total amount of organic compounds in water, including those that are poorly degradable.
Compliance Corporate compliance comprises the observance of statutory and company regulations on lawful and responsible conduct by the company, its employees and its management and supervisory bodies. Compliance with respect to drug safety comprises the observation of regulatory requirements in quality assurance and monitoring of the risk-benefit ratio in human and veterinary medicine.
Corporate citizen Term denoting the status of a company as a responsible member of society. Corporate citizenship is often employed as a synonym for corporate social responsibility, a concept which enables companies to position themselves as “good citizens.”
Diversity designates the variation within the workforce in terms of gender, origin, nationality, age, religion and physical limitations.
Dressing (seed dressing) Treatment of seeds with crop protection agents prior to sowing.
Econet China is an information platform for construction, energy and the environment in China specifically for German companies to facilitate market access and arrange contacts in the greentech market.
Ecotoxicity Ecotoxicity is used to
describe the harmful effects that chemical substances, preparations or formulations have on living organisms, their population and the natural environment.
EMAS Short for Eco Management and Audit Scheme, also known as E.U. Eco-Audit or Eco-Audit. It is an E.U. regulation. Introduction of EMAS is voluntary. Examples of organizations that can be validated according to
EMAS are industrial companies, service providers and administrative centers.
Energy consumption (calculated in petajoules) Unit of labor, energy and heat volume (1 joule = 1 watt x second = 0.2239 calories; 1 petajoule = 1015 joules)
ESG indicators ESG stands for Environment, Social, Governance. Indicators in these areas are playing an increasingly important role in assessing companies’ achievements in the field of sustainability.
Essential Drug List As defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), this list details the drugs required to meet the most urgent needs of the population in terms of medical care. Within any health care system, these should be available in sufficient quantities, the correct dosage forms, good quality and at a price affordable to patients.
External Adverse Incident Guideline This guideline governs global internal reporting channels in the event of unexpected incidents involving Bayer CropScience products.
FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which is responsible among other things for licensing drugs on the U.S. market. It corresponds to the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) in Germany.
GHG Protocol The Greenhouse Gas Protocol is a standard tool for the registration and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions. The various standards summarized in the GHG Protocol were developed by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and the World Resources Institute (WRI).
GHS Globally Harmonized System for the classification, labeling and packaging of substances and mixtures (Regulation (EC) No. 1272 / 2008), which has been in effect since January 20, 2009.
Global Product Strategy Based on the objectives of the United Nations, the International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) took the initiative and established the Global Product Strategy (GPS). The aim of the GPS initiative is to improve and standardize the level of product stewardship in the chemical industry worldwide.
Green IT Efficiency-raising and
resource-conserving measures in the information and communications technology sector for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
Hybrid seeds High-yield seeds produced by crossing two pure, genetically different parent lines.
Innovative Vector Control Consortium (IVCC) Initially established as a research consortium in November 2005, the Innovative Vector Control Consortium (IVCC) has now evolved into a Product Development Partnership (PDP). The IVCC brings expertise and technical resources together with the goal of overcoming barriers to innovation in the development of new insecticides and information systems for improved vector control in health care.
ISO 14001 International standard specifying requirements for environmental management systems.
LTRIR (Lost Time Reportable Incident Rate) – The number of reported occupational injuries and work-related illnesses resulting in at least one or more days lost per 200,000 hours worked.
Macular degeneration Age-related macular degeneration is one of the most common causes of blindness. In the United States and Europe, wet AMD is the most common cause of blindness in people aged above 65. The Bayer active ingredient VEGF Trap-Eye for the treatment of wet (age-related) macular degeneration (AMD) is currently in Phase III of clinical development.
MDI Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, a raw material for polyurethane applications and insulating foam.
Millennium Development Goals In 2000, high-ranking representatives from 189 countries adopted the Millennium Declaration at a UN summit in New York. This describes the global challenges and agenda for international politics at the beginning of the 21st century. Eight internationally agreed objectives, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), were derived from the Declaration and assigned specific targets and indicators. These goals, such as eradicating poverty, maintaining peace and protecting the environment, should be achieved by 2015. The UN is monitoring the implementation of the Millennium Declaration.
Nitrification, also called ammonia oxidation, describes the bacterial oxidation of ammonia (NH3) into nitrate (NO3-). In the nitrogen cycle of ecosystems, nitrification plays an important role because, through this process, nitrogen-containing mineral nutrient is formed for plants.
OHSAS 18001 stands for the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series, which contains requirements for occupational health and safety management systems.
Open innovation approach The open innovation approach describes the optimization and opening up of the innovation processes of companies and thus the active strategic use of outside sources to expand one’s own innovation potential.
Ozone-depleting substances (ODS)
Ozone-depleting substances include fluorochlorohydrocarbons, other fully halogenated fluorochlorohydrocarbons, halons, tetrachlorocarbon, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, methyl bromide, partially halogenated fluorobromohydrocarbons and partially halogenated fluorochlorohydrocarbons. The successive discontinuation of their use was resolved in 1987
by the Montreal Protocol.
Phase I-III studies Phase I-III studies are phases in the clinical development of a drug product. The candidate active ingredient is tested in healthy subjects (with the exception of oncology) in Phase I, and in sick patients in Phases II and III. The studies are bound to strict legal requirements and documentation obligations.
Product Launch Policy Supported by the Biotechnology Industry Organization, this policy aims to simplify the traffic in commodities and minimize trade disruptions.
Product Safety Assessments Process for assessing product safety in terms of risks to the environment and health. This comprises the steps product prioritization, risk characterization, risk management and risk communication on the basis of the information available.
Product stewardship The monitoring of a product over its entire life cycle as an integral element of activities that satisfy the principles of sustainable development and Responsible Care
Responsible Care (RC) initiative Voluntary global initiative by the chemical industry aimed at achieving continuous improvements in environmental protection, occupational health and safety, product stewardship, and the safety of sites and their immediate surroundings.
Seed Treatment Application Center
The Seed Treatment Application Center (STAC) in Monheim is a center of expertise for seed treatment applications technology that offers consulting, technical services, support and training for customers.
TDA Toluene diamine, an intermediate in the plastics industry.
Telepresence is a type of videoconference that enables lifelike, one-on-one communication across great distances through high-resolution communication solutions.
Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Total volume of organically bound carbon in water.
UN Global Compact This global pact represents an agreement between companies and the United Nations. It calls upon transnational companies to participate in sustainable globalization in a constructive, responsible manner. Companies participating in the UN Global Compact have undertaken to engage in responsible business practices based on compliance with minimum social and ecological standards, and to document their company’s commitment in this area. These standards have been encapsulated in 10 principles based on the areas of human rights, labor, environment and anti-corruption.
UNEP The United Nations Environment Programme was founded in 1972 and is based in Nairobi, Kenya. UNEP is a suborgan of the UN General Assembly.
USAID United States Agency for International Development. Government agency for development aid in the United States.
Varroa mites Varroa mites feed on the blood of honey bees. They reproduce in the breeding cells of the bees, damaging the brood until bee colonies die due to the lack of young.
VEGF Trap-Eye VEGF Trap-Eye is a fully human, soluble receptor binding protein of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor). The active ingredient is currently in Phase III of clinical development for the treatment of wet (age-related) macular degeneration (AMD).
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) Volatile organic compounds are gaseous chemicals that contribute to smog or ozone formation. These enter the environment primarily from production processes, waste incineration or fuel consumption.
WHO Class I The World Health Organization (WHO) divides crop protection agents into various hazard classes. Class 1 products are deemed to be extremely hazardous.